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U.S. Treasury should expand sanctions against Nicolas Maduro

The U.S. Treasury Department finally included PDVSA in its sanctions regime against Nicolas Maduro's kleptocracy. The ratcheting up came after the Trump administration recognised Juan Guaidó as interim President of Venezuela. Today, Germany, France, UK, Spain, Austria and Sweden announced their respective recognition of Guaidó, given Maduro's failure to seek a meaningful solution: i.e. call for free and transparent elections. The Treasury Department, however, could do much more to choke Maduro's only and last source of cash: PDVSA exports to U.S. Gulf refineries.

PDVSA's Shipping and Commerce & Supply data obtained by this site, for the months of December and January, show a number of active players trading with PDVSA & CITGO. These were / are:

  • RIL USA Inc;
  • Reliance Industries Limited;
  • Reliance Industries (Middle East);
  • China Petroleum Corporation (CNPC);
  • Rosneft Trading;
  • Helios Petroleum Services;
  • Novum Energy Trading Corp.;
  • Atlantic Trading and Marketing Inc.;
  • LDC Supply International LLC;
  • Trafigura Trading;
  • Trafigura PTE Ltd;
  • Repsol Trading;
  • MS International and Corp;
  • Valero;
  • Vitol;
  • Chevron;
  • China Oil International PTE;
  • Nynas AB;
  • CITGO;
  • China National United Oil Corp;
  • TNK Trading International;
  • Refineria Isla Curaçao BV;
  • Essar Oil Limited;
  • Tipco Asphalt Limited;
  • Houston Refining LP;
  • Castleton Commodities International;
  • Elemento Ltd;
  • Proactive Energy.

Despite Venezuela's desperate humanitarian crisis, PDVSA continues shipping to Cuba (CUBAMETALES) millions of dollars worth of jet fuel, gas oil, commercial butane, blend stock, Mesa and Merey crude.

Added: Once sanctions kicked in (28 January), Valero, Chevron, RIL USA, and Houston Refining ordered its ships to not dock until further notice. Tankers departed afterwards. PDVSA forced RIL USA to discharge a Naphta cargo, as per sources.


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