Message to INFODIO readers: investigative journalism, which is what this site does, takes lots of time. Visiting media looking for a quick run down on Venezuela's gargantuan corruption, have the decency to at least cite the source when plagiarising this site's content without attribution (exhibit Reuters here and here, exhibit Bloomberg here, exhibit OCCRP here). To all readers, do the right thing, the honest thing: support independent investigative journalism, help us expose rampant corruption. Note added 28/06/2021: impostors are using this site's former editor's full name, and a fake email address ( to send copyright infringement claims / take down requests to web hosting companies (exhibit Hostgator). The attempt is yet another effort paid by corrupt thugs to erase information about their criminal activities. has no issues with other websites / journalists using / posting information published here, so long as the source is properly cited.


Does Venezuela really have world's largest oil reserves? Anonymous Mon, 06/05/2023 - 05:16

The claim that Venezuela had the "world's largest oil reserves" went viral during Hugo Chavez's presidency. It is a very convenient claim, from a geopolitical and economic viewpoint. It somehow makes the country more relevant. Chavez nurtured and repeated the legend every time he could. It became one of those revolutionary mantras that everyone regurgitates without question, like the lie that Venezuela was declared an "illiteracy free territory" by UNESCO.

Llorca and Salazar united in Spain's and Venezuela's largest corruption schemes. Anonymous Fri, 05/26/2023 - 07:17

Take a look at this Ponzi scheme: it is said to be Spain's largest, €3 billion that belonged to 300,000 people vanished.

Rudy Giuliani allegedy sold pardons for $2mn, went halfsies with Donald Trump.

Because we know Giuliani visited Betancourt in Madrid; because we know Giuliani lobbied Trump's Attorney General Bill Barr on Betancourt's behalf; because Giuliani is on record saying Betancourt couldn't be discussed because doing so was a matter of "national security"; the question aftert the title must then be: did the Donald get money from Alejandro Betancourt?

Make sure to read this, and specifically points 94-96 and 132.

Sanctions or no sanctions? Effectiveness and deterrence.

There is a tired debate regarding sanctions. Naturally both camps disregard data inconvenient to their stance. Proponents see sanctions as perfect non-violent measures that bring economic hardship to targets. Opponents see it as demonstrably inefficient tools that invariably end up punishing the wrong people. Both sides are simultaneously right and wrong. Cuba is the perfect case study. Years of U.S. sanctions have achieved precisely nothing against the dictators in power.

Spain's tax authority after Alejandro Betancourt

In its latest weekly publication Gotham City published "Le fisc espagnol s'intéresse aux comptes suisses d'Alejandro Betancourt." As is typical in anything related to "entrepreneur" Betancourt, it turns out he hasn't been forthcoming regarding his global income and assets, which, as a resident in Spain, he must declare. With respect to tax payments over the years in Venezuela (where Betancourt "made his wealth"), he has never paid his due to SENIAT, Venezuela's tax authority

Alessandro Bazzoni reportedly behind United Petroleo: where does that leave Luis Giusti? Anonymous Fri, 04/14/2023 - 04:21

El Nacional reported yesterday, without giving much detail, that Alessandro Bazzoni is the ultimate beneficiary owner of United Petroleo, a Panamanian shell that has been lifting hundreds of millions of dollars worth of PDVSA crude in the recent past.

Nicolas Maduro sold Nynas to mistery buyer? Anonymous Tue, 03/28/2023 - 10:35

A ruling from Judge Leonard P.  Stark of U.S. District Court in Delaware (case Rusoro Mining Ltd. v. Bolivarian Rep. of Venezuela, 21-mc-00481-LPS) claims that Juan Guaidó had objected to the sale by Nicolas Maduro's regime of a 35% stake that PDVSA had in Nynas. This site has covered extensively Nynas's reorganisation process.

The one about Nicolas Maduro cracking down on Tareck el Aissami's corruption

Since last Friday it's been reported: "Tareck (el Aissami) is going down... Joselit Ramirez, his right hand man, was arrested... Antonio Pérez Suárez, head of PDVSA's trade department, was arrested... law enforcement got to the Arosio Hobaica brothers... Delcy and Jorge Rodriguez were seen screaming at Tareck... Maduro is livid due to billions lost in unpaid subterfuge trading... Alessandro Bazzoni is involved along Joaquin Leal... They're coming for Majed Khalil and brother Khaled... Alejandro Arroyo got caught..."