Message to INFODIO readers: investigative journalism, which is what this site does, takes lots of time. Visiting media looking for a quick run down on Venezuela's gargantuan corruption, have the decency to at least cite the source when plagiarising this site's content without attribution (exhibit Reuters here and here, exhibit Bloomberg here, exhibit OCCRP here). To all readers, do the right thing, the honest thing: support independent investigative journalism, help us expose rampant corruption. Note added 28/06/2021: impostors are using this site's former editor's full name, and a fake email address ( to send copyright infringement claims / take down requests to web hosting companies (exhibit Hostgator). The attempt is yet another effort paid by corrupt thugs to erase information about their criminal activities. has no issues with other websites / journalists using / posting information published here, so long as the source is properly cited.


WaPo, NYT, Reuters, Franklin Foer et al kept disinformation shop Fusion GPS' counsel

What kind of self respecting and established journalist in the employ of a reputed media outlet sends draft of unpublished work -for edit / suggestions / feedback- to people completely unrelated to his employer? The Franklin Foer kind. What kind of a well established media allows a professional journalist to get marching orders from spin doctors retained by the worse Russian and Venezuelan criminality?

PDVSA no longer sits at Nynas' Board

The case of Nynas qualifies as one of the most brazen corporate raids seen in Venezuelan owned assets. Before Trump administrations' sanctions, PDVSA was Nynas' majority shareholder with a stake of over 50%. The rest was owned by Finland's Neste group. Treasury sanctions on PDVSA caused a great deal of disruption, which pushed Nynas to the brink of bankruptcy.

Gunvor Colombia's PDVSA crude trade breaches Treasury sanctions

Developing story: GUNVOR COLOMBIA SAS, a subsidiary of Gunvor, has been caught participating in an elaborate trade scheme involving PDVSA crude. The crude produced in Venezuela was being exported as "residual oil" to Curaçao and Panama, and then delivered to Swiss Terminal's (subsidiary of Houston-based SGR Energy) storage in Barranquilla. On the import side there were Petroworld SAS, La Operadora SAS, Krystal Energy SAS.

Saet Precedent: way to go in legal cases against PDVSA

There is one record that distinguishes the administrations of Hugo Chavez and Nicolas Maduro with previous governments in Venezuela: amount of international lawsuits brought against PDVSA. Reasons are varied, but it all comes down to yet another unique characteristic of both Chavez and Maduro: total disregard for contracts and its legally binding aspects. Law is not something that was ever going to stand in the way of the Bolivarian Revolution. If it could not be amended on the fly to suit revolutionary needs, it would just be ignored.

U.S. follows misguided EU energy policy

Once upon a time some countries in Europe shifted energy production policies. Coal and nuclear were to be replaced by renewables. Hydrocarbons would be phased out as soon as practically possible. The problem with such calculus is that output of renewables is nowhere near that of traditional hydrocarbons-based sources. Environmental concerns at the local level were appeased by shutting down "polluting" energy production in Europe.

What about Venezuela's boligarchs?

Russian oligarchs have become unpalatable, toxic. The social contract that existed between them and countries in the Western world that took / launder their money has been upended due to Vladimir Putin's Ukranian invasion. It wasn't always like that. There was a time when Roman Abramovich showed up in London with his loot and every last member of every establishment celebrated his business prowess, but above all else his largesse. He bought mansions, yachts, a very famous football club, and plenty of access. No one, nowhere, ever questioned origin of his wealth, and word got out.

Venezuela in no capacity to replace Russian oil Anonymous Thu, 03/17/2022 - 09:32

The Ukraine invasion and meeting between President Biden's officials and Nicolas Maduro in Caracas has awoken PDVSA experts. These days, every "Venezuela energy sector expert" talking to the media is making unsustainable remarks about its alleged capacity to fill the gap that sanctions on Russia's energy will create in the market. They talk about "spare capacity... ability to increase production to 600,000 barrels a day rapidly... release of millions of barrels held in the strategic reserve... Venezuela taking Russia's place in U.S.